The Physics of Pfft.
by Piper Michael
(Dedicated to those in our military who like it quiet.)
The Universe is chaotic place, full of noise and beauty, nothing is linear, yet man continues in his linear thinking, simply because it is easy. Everything being constructed of straight lines and angles, defying mother nature, and hardly ever achieving maximum efficiency. ITs truly a wonder that the wheel itself was invented. This is understandable since, we have never had a ‘Theory of Everything’, that defines what and how the Universe itself is constructed, until now.
When the new theory is consulted concerning blast waves, or the loud bang associated with projectile based kinetic delivery mechanisms, which are called; firearms in the venacular, specifically, those that emit a precious metal projectile at a high velocity, a picture emerges. The problems associated with this noisy nuisance are magnified by the linear thinking of those trying to silence or reduce the noise that is emitted from the end of the mechanism.
This wave of noise, is not unlike any other wave phenomena in the Universe, in that, it has a high amplitude and a sinewave component. Meaning it is short, and loud. There are many reasons for wanting to reduce or eliminate this noise, from hunting animals to hunting prey that can seek the source of the noise and return fire. The military and hunters being the primary audience of the need. It is pretty much a statement of fact that current devices intended to reduce this noise, do not live up to the Hollywood billing in real life.
Currently, the linear thinkers have two basic designs of this mechanism called; a silencer. There is the baffle plate and the mesh designs, or combinations. Both work off the principle(whether they know it or not) of redirecting the blast wave back into itself and working the energy of the main sine wave back into a series of smaller waves that exit the side of the silencer through a series of channels and perforations in the mechanism. The baffle design tries to break the primary sine wave into a series of smaller waves, and the mesh designs try to absorb the wave.
This process is designed to reduce the main wave amplitude into a series of smaller waves, and a gentler noise that is characterized by the sound of ‘phfft’, the ideal. This sound is basically the sound of chaos, or high frequency white noise. It is the channeling of the energy of the wave from the base of the projectile, out the sides of the silencer where it is worked into a series of smaller waves by the spinning action of chaos, or the working of the waves energy. But at higher calibers, this process breaks down due to the higher energy of the system, and the necessity to make the device bigger and longer, until it is not practical. Thus trade offs are made. This is the result of linear thinking based on known principles. This process can be termed thinking inside the box. Part of the problem is that the device, must ‘look right’, and be practical at the same time. Thus the trade offs compromise the intended function of ‘capturing the energy wave’ and destabilizing it.
Linear thinking breaks down in the area of waves, because the mechanisms of baffle plates and meshs, have a common problem, in that, they have a single level or layer of wave reduction, that is accomplished either by a stepped function of the baffle matrix, or a stepped function of the mesh, either way, there is only one point of reduction of the wave to the atmospheric interface. This causes the combination of blast wave exit points to resynchronize into a single combined more complex exit wave of slightly reduced amplitude. The primary energy wave is altered and reduced, but the destabilization process is not complete because the time signature and overpressure of the primary is not altered, thus the amplitude over time is not significantly broken up. The more this type of design is tightened up, through smaller baffles and meshes, the more over pressure is generated inside the mechanism, thus the gas is not able to escape out the sides fast enough, and escapes out the delivery end nullifying the whole concept.
The idea behind these devices should be to capture the energy wave and destabilize it into many wavelets, or a continuous flow of phfft instead of a single amplitude primary wave, like that which is accomplished in the manifold and muffler of an internal combustion engine. This is done by feeding the energy of the combustion back into itself by the process of chaos theory, or mixing and working that energy by the creation of spiral vortexes through the process of channeling, storing, baffling and mixing the flow. This multilevel process, effectively alters the time domain of the individual cylinders and creates a continuous flow.
If we leave the realm of linear thinking we arrive at the necessity to ‘capture the wave’ in a mechanism designed after the heart and soul of mother nature. According to the new ToE, the soul of mother nature is the spiral vortex, which is the perfect chaotic mixing platform because it allows us to alter time itself. This requires several things, in several different configurations, depending on the level of energy of the kinetic device in question. First and foremost, the energy of the wave must be redirected back from the base of the projectile continuously, as it leaves the barrel, this will stretch the ‘primary sine’ part of the wave and thus alter the time domain.
Then the longer wave is captured and muffled as a separate function before the atmospheric interface. This requires the abandoning of stepped linear baffles and the use of a spiral vortex channel(SVChannel) along the length of the extended barrel. This spiral baffle would appear to be along the lines of the rifling grooves, which become a continuous channel into the rear of the device. The bang is literally absorbed, stretched and damped like an expanding wave function, the energy thus being released over a longer time frame. This will reduce the sharpness of the primary wave through time expansion, and eliminate any possibility of wave resynchronization in atmosphere. Then we come to the next issue, the back pressure, mixing chamber and muffler.
For the destabilization of the blast wave to occur efficiently, the SVChannel must be of suffient volume to accommodate the estimated volume of combustion gases, which is the carrier of the energy. This must be fed continuously from the channeled barrel to the SVChannel into a mixing manifold and muffler, with a gas exit point separate from the kinetic exit point with a much larger diameter. The slotted or perforated barrel must be as close to gapless with the projectile as is feasible, ideally the exact same caliber as the attached barrel. Thus forcing the combustion gas into the SVchannel, and back into ‘The Muffler’.
The idea is to channel the wave of energy backwards into the muffler continuously throughout the entire period of kinetic delivery while spinning the gas around the barrel in the SV Channel to stretch the time signature, then capture that wave within a mixing manifold, while simultaneously allowing the wave to escape through a low back pressure muffler, thus completing the process of forcing the wave back upon itself to create maximum chaos to create the perfect noise pattern, the sound of chaos, pfft.
The above description of the new design may sound daunting, fortunately, it is not. For those who have the prescribed licenses, and are able to perform the necessary work, it will first be necessary to establish the proper coefficients or parameters of different calibers and gas velocities. This can be accomplished with off the shelf materials and a simple audio dbm meter, or a human ear.
Test the hypothesis
The following test arrangement is for licensed manufacturers only, you are hereby warned that to build such a thing without proper licensing would be considered a violation of Federal law, of the felonious variety, so you have been warned. If you are sloppy, or slack or stupid in your fabrication techniques, you will run the risk of hurting yourself or somebody else in the vicinity because of projectile deflection. Make sure your alignments are PERFECT or you will suffer the consequences of being stupid. It is recommended, that test shots be fired from a vise stand and remote trigger string or wire from the operator being positioned behind a shield, while firing into a safe area. IF you do not maintain full possession of your faculties while performing these tests, you could feel the full brunt of shooting yourself.
END OF WARNING…
First, find a metal or plastic or wooden rod of the perfect caliber that inserts without scarring or effort into the appropriate barrel.
Find a long strip of mylar, (like from a helium balloon) and carefully wrap a helical the length of the rod in a spiral where there are no overlaps(gaps are ok if you can’t get a perfect wrap). Tape one end securely before starting, then when finished, tape the other end. So that you have a rod, with an overlay that is slightly larger than the caliber of the firearm to test. This is important! This sets the ‘gap distance’ of the ‘barrel extension’. (For a manufacturer this is not important at all, because you would make a slotted or perforated barrel of perfect size that screws onto the end… right? If so, we would recommend more slot, less barrel. But, if all you wish to do is test designs, heed this warning.)
Now take some sheet metal,aluminum is easily worked and will last long enough to perform a limited number of firings. Work the sheet metal around the rod, so that you have curled a length of sheet metal. Now cut lengths of strip as long as the mylar, these will be dependent on caliber. You want to end up with at least three thin curved strips that fit on the mylared rod. Remove any burrs on the edges of the strips. When positioned on the mylared rod, it should give the appearance of a slotted barrel, because that is what it will become. If you did it right, there will be almost as much slot as there is barrel. Position, mount and secure these strips along the length of the rod with a piece of tape positioned in the middle, it only has to hold the strips in place through the next step of the process.
Then construct two washers that slip over the end of the ‘slotted mylared’ rod easily. Cut or grind a slot into the outer edge of both washers(these do not have to be metal, as this device is for testing purposes and is designed only to hold up for a few test firings. Thus, the washers can be plastic if metal working capability is not available. We would recommend a high temperature plastic(such as that used in microwavable meals), in order for the device to not melt during tests, metal is preferred and sheet metal is adequate…) cut the slot according to the wire size you will use, from the center to the outside edge, what you end up with looks like a deformed U. The thicker the washer, the easier this process will be.
Here is where a decision must be made, of what wire size to use. You are to take a single length of either copper or steel rod, of suffient diameter, that you can both wind the wire around the rod, and, have sufficient distance from the O.D. of the slotted rod, to the I.D. of the surrounding tube, to provide adequate channel depth. For a 22cal this could be as little as a 12GA solid copper wire. Place one of the slotted washer disks on the rod where it will be attached to the barrel end, hold it in place with vise grips or a vise, sufficient to keep it steady and on the intended mark. A vise holding the disk, and a clamp holding the rod in place seems to work best. You may have to make a clamping jig.
With a pair of pliers, put a slight kink into the end of the wire, then drop that kink into the slot of the washer. The wire should be hanging at about a 45 degree angle in direct contact with the slotted rod, then JB weld, solder or braze it into place taking care not get any on the rod, and wait for an hour before proceeding with the next step. This may require a vise grip clamp or two on the wire itself to maintain position during this process. The 45 degree angle is your starting place for measurments, where higher calibers may require a higher angle that translates into a longer SVChannel.
When the setting of the weld is complete, slowly maintain a slight tension while wrapping the wire around the rod and maintaining this ‘angle of the dangle’. Have another set of clamps or jigs, for the washer at the other end. Wrap the wire until you get to the end washer and perform the same operation, making sure to stay in contact with the rod the entire way. You should now see the makings of a spiral channel around the rod for the full length of the rod. The distance between washers should be 10 inches, to set the zero point of measurments. This now becomes the sides of the spiral channel on which to add the outside shell. It should have the appearance of an Archimedes screw. JB weld the slots to the SVChannel carefully, only a little dab is required since this will simply hold the assembly together for subsequent fabrication. Do not put any more than required because it will potentially block the flow of gas. Make sure you get no adhesive on the mylar, as it will make it impossible to cleanly remove once it is set up.
(This is known as the MacGyver method. Sometimes you just use what is laying around the shop, either because you don’t want to waste money on a ‘stupid idea’, or you do not have the proper facilities and money to waste in acquiring the needed manufacturing infrastructure. So you must get creative in the building of a ‘concept prototype’. This is something that merely proves a concept, it only has to work once or twice. If proven, or not, you haven’t wasted scads of money on an idea building a ‘manufacturing prototype’(this is where a lot of amateur ‘inventors’ defund themselves in not having the skills to complete an idea, and, get taken to the cleaners by those who do). We can envision many ways of accomplishing this SVchannel, depending on resources.)
The last step in fabricating ‘The SVChannel Core’ is to apply a flanging of the ends of the slotted barrel over the washers. Ideally, this should be done by the construction of a mandrel or having a perfectly shaped center punch on hand. The idea is to fold the ends of the slotted strips, over the washers, thus making a slight perturbation in the slot away from the bullet entry point, while firmly fashioning the entire assembly together. But first, you must sturdy up the core. This is done by simply rolling a perfectly fitting piece of sheet metal around the core and then taping it together, this should form a tube, and you begin to see how the SVChannel, will continuously channel the gas backwards.
If everything is set up properly(overnight is recommended), then the mylared rod should able to be moved in and out of the core. Keep it inside the slotted barrel, it is required for strengthing the interior during the flanging process. A mandrel can be constructed of steel rod, ground to a 45 degree point. Then a lip is ground around the edge of the cone, such that a slight tapping action, should force the slotted barrel ends away from each other with a slight rounding and then the lip of the mandrel seals the ends over the washer. This can be accomplished on each end by moving the mylared rod into a position just below the exit point and clamping the the rod in a vice, while also placing a clamp into position on the rod to keep the core from moving down. Then the mandrel can be used on either end to form the flanges. GENTLY tap the mandrel to form the metal since there is no backstop. Remove the outer sheet metal wrap, which can be used as a starting point for the next step.
The wire vortex, or SVChannel, should now be sealed with an overlay of sheet metal to both contain the gas and control the heating of any plastic outside parts. This overlay should be the full length of the vortex, from kinetic exit washer to within 1″ of the barrel washer, The idea is to channel the gas, not block it. A permanent seal can be easily constructed using this method by running a bead or dabbing a bit of JB weld along the top of the wire, so that when the overlay is wrapped a final time, a simple circular clamp can pull it and hold it in place while it sets up. When finished, you should be able to remove the rod with no effort, with little to no resistance once the mylar is untaped. Then the mylar can be removed from the rod. You should now be holding an SV channel core. The rod should then slide back into the core with no resistance, in fact, it better have a little wiggle room or Houston, you have a problem. Restart. (Remember, we’re not trying to achieve perfection, just ‘adequate’ to test.) You may now grind off any residual or excess wire sticking out the ends to form a smooth surface, this is necessary for the barrel end to acheive proper mating.
Now the outside of the SV channel, or the shell+manifold, must be built. This can be a simple copper, brass, steel, sheet metal or pvc pipe that matches the O.D. of the barrel in question, with double the test length of the SVChannel core. This may require two pipes or different layering of the core or shell to achieve the desired fit with the sheet metal exterior wrap of the SVchannel core. The idea of this is to have an OD of the entire SV channel, that fits snugly inside the shell, that is perfectly sized to slip on the end of the barrel. If you have to wrap additional layers of the overlay, this is the desired method to achieve a perfect fit, and a perfect fit is demanded to eliminate any slop in the final assembly…
The shell manifold, is adjusted for whether or not the DUT, or Device Under Test, is to be used with iron sights or a scope. The shell is first slotted perfectly to 1/2 its length(which was TWICE as long as the SVchannel remember) to slip the entire shell over the barrel, with the slot cut to accomodate the width of the iron sight. This should allow the entire assembly to slip over the end of the barrel until the barrel washer mates with the end of the barrel. Using the alignment rod should facilitate testing this ‘mating’.
Once the assembly is mated, the main exit port must be cut, drilled, or otherwise accomplished. This needs to remove sufficient material to have at least a one inch square opening in the bottom of the shell, it must overlap the SVChannel core opening. Over this opening is added a T fitting, so that the main port exhausts into the bottom of the T. Make sure the SV channel aligns with the port. From the bottom of this T, insert a nipple, so that another T can be fit to it, with the T upside down, looking at it from the side. This arrangement should give you a sideways H. (If the upper T interferes with the iron sight, cut a groove in the top of the T before final assembly, the width of this groove shouldn’t matter as long as it is firm on the shell.)
From the front or kinetic delivery end of the upside down T, fit a 10″ pipe with a nipple on the end, this gives two pipes pointing towards the target, one hung below the other. This is the expansion and mixing manifold. Then adapt a lawn mower muffler out the rear end of the T with the nozzle or baffle output facing the ground. Secure the entire assembly onto the barrel using wire, hose clamps or whatever you like. To absorb ‘through the device’ sound, wrap the entire assembly in a layer of fiberglass and sheet metal. Take your original rod, and rod the entire assembly, making sure all is in perfect alignment, and secured to the barrel without any slop at all.
Mount on a test stand, with remote trigger pull to the operator stationed behind the device under test, preferably behind a bullet proof shield.
The Sound barrier
Today, we are still making bullets as they were first invented. A solid slug of lead or combination of ‘precious metals’ such that the flight of the projectile is enhanced by the aerodynamics of the pointy bullet shape. The purpose of this is to cut through the atmosphere at higher velocities with little resistance. Unfortunately, higher velocities bring forth their own problems, in this case, the mini sonic booms associated with the firing of such rounds.
At this point we wish to thank the Chorus of voices of dissent, that steered this as a thought experiment into this realm of the problem. It was something we had initially considered unsolvable based on known physics. However, the mere act of the discourse has led to the reapplication of the new theoretical base to this problem, and a possible solution may have manifested itself.
Now, the last part of this paper deals with the supersonic or so called sound barrier.
The sound barrier is characterized by the phenomena of the Sonic Boom. This is caused by the compression prewave of resistance of the atmosphere that precedes any aircraft, which includes projectiles being emitted at a velocity that is faster than the speed of sound. The side effect of this phenomena, the mini sonic booms that result from the very high velocity of supersonic projectiles.
There has been no research, to our knowledge, of anyone attempting to alleviate this conversion phenomena, the cause of the sonic boom being, a projectile or aircraft, that increases velocity until it exceeds the speed of sound, causes a trailing vacuum as the atmospheric impedance resists the increased velocity. It is this trailing vacuum that causes the sudden inrush or implosion of atmosphere, that gives the sudden and usually very loud acoustic signature called the Sonic boom. Thus the potential energy is ‘converted’ into dynamic energy by the trailing vacuum.
When this is understood, it then becomes necessary to eliminate this vacuum in the search for a silent projectile path. If we are to approach the sound barrier as the problem, then the solution becomes manifest in the new theory, we must take away the ability of the atmosphere to compress ahead of the flight of the projectile. As with everything else, this compression wave represents potential energy, the energy of compression and release. The only way to eliminate the potential energy then, is to work it, and forcefully pull it from the front of the projectile to the rear. This could possibly be done by the introduction of a vortex bubble. It would be this vortex bubble’s job to spin the atmosphere at an angular momentum sufficient to remove the energy compression from the front to the rear during the flight of the projectile, thus eliminating the vacuum by forced mixing or working of that energy.
We have cogitated upon the characteristics of the flight of projectiles as being of insufficient spin, or angular momentum, allowing the projectile, as far as the atmospheric impedance is concerned, as being basically a static object in flight. The spin of the projectile being imparted by the simple process of rifling grooves in the barrel of the kinetic delivery mechanism. This process is hundreds of years old and is held dear and sacred to the art of firearms, for good reason, spin is the stabilizer of the projectiles causing increased accuracy at long range, but, could it also serve another purpose if greatly enhanced? That of creating the above mentioned Vortex Bubble?
If thought is given to this process, the spin imparted accuracy represents the interface between the surface of the projectile and the atmosphere. Like a curve ball, the spinning motion of the projectile ‘grabs’ the atmosphere and forces it into a centrifugally stabilized ballistic arc based on initial velocity. As range increases, this drag slows the projectiles spin, and accuracy drops off with range. The important point being, the projectile path is affected by the atmospheric interface of drag that slows the spin, instead of being used to help the spin. Would rifling the projectile itself, enhance accuracy and range? This would be a nice side exercise for those predisposed to tinkering, since a simple file and some emery cloth would be the only required tooling.
(Side note: The spin itself should be targeted towards a left handed or counterclockwise spin as it leaves the barrel. There may not seem to be any difference to the knowledgeable practitioners, but the new theory imparts the knowledge of a left handed Universe, thus, a left handed spin may be aided and a right handed spin opposed by the causal force of the quantum foam within the gravity wind vortex, which is the foundation of the molecular atmosphere.
This may not even be necessary since dealing at the macro level, however a slight difference may be seen at longer distances, as it has been seen with long distance space probes which have gone off course according to general relativity, but corrected with the new theory. We do not know for fact as to the amount of interaction would be felt, it is a speculation merely added as the underlying theoretical foundation of the vortex bubble such that practitioners, may leave no stone unturned in their personal quests for efficiency of accuracy and silence. It is simply our speculation that a left handed bubble will work better than a right handed bubble.)
We have wondered if this process of spin could be enhanced by the addition of a spin fin to the rear of the projectile, but this would probably not impart sufficient energy because it would be a passive trailing effect, not an active leading effect. It may serve the purpose of longer and more accurate ballistic flights, but the exit wave would still serve as a point of focus of detection of the source. Likewise, considering moving the rifling of the barrel, to rifling the projectile, could also improve this characteristic, but it is doubtful that the spin component would be high enough to effect the initial sonic boom upon exit from the kinetic delivery mechanism.
Thus as in all things, it is necessary to abandon age old thinking, and come to a new thought, what would be the result if an ignitable primer and high velocity charge were put within the projectile itself, possibly a two part bullet. Placed, measured and capped with suitable primer material to seal it, and the exit ports angled in such a way as to impart hyper spin upon the projectile while it is still within the barrel? We suppose this could be termed; a Rocket bullet. We suspect that to achieve the goal of higher accuracy, and implosion destabilization, a combination of all the above methods would have to be used, coming up with an entirely new thing. The rifling of the bullet, the fin stabilization, and the rocket charge, would act together to create a hyper-spinning projectile, that pulls the atmosphere around it, and forces a leading and trailing vortex bubble that can reach in front of itself, and distribute the compressed atmosphere behind it, while mixing the rear flow into a continuous vortex.
A charge that is set off at the point of detonation of the primary cartridge, causing the projectile to reach hypersonic spin before it reaches the exit point, would perhaps not allow the compression wave to begin at all because the atmosphere would begin to be sucked towards the rear of the projectile before it exited, and if the compression can be stopped and channeled to the rear of the projectile, then the implosion could be averted, and the mixing sound of the higher spin projectile would, again, be reduced to the sound of chaos, pfft.
It also must be brought into consideration that the old fashioned rifled barrel may have to be abandoned in order to achieve higher spin rates, as the rifling itself may prevent it or cause a catastrophic destruction of the barrel. Charge materials themselves should be considered because of waste products forced into the sides of the barrel, which could conceivably, like in the black powder days, cause need for frequent cleaning. Longer barrels may also become a requirement in order to allow sufficient time for any projectile to spin up. Consideration would also have to be given to the rocket half of the projectile, such that it can perform without exploding or melting.
Another more ‘hi tech’ variation could be the prespinning of the entire cartridge, until max spin up is achieved before a rifled bullet is fired.
To adjust the parameters of differing calibers, the idea is to move as much gas backwards and down through the expansion manifold as possible, where the gas energy is mixed and worked and leaked through the muffler. The SVChannel must be the primary focus point of any development, with the expansion manifold and muffler being the same physics as any internal combustion engine, back pressure is the key.
A single ‘can’ mechanism, both SVChannel and muffler is achievable through the proper channeling of the gases through a multiple layered baffle plates and flow plates within a common cylinder. However, to allow the use of iron sights, the configuration of this would have to be offset towards the ground or view slot configured, and the interference of scope sights may have to be considered as well. Either way, the trade offs then tilt closer towards the ideal of capturing the wave vs the linearity of practicality.
This basic science information is placed into the public domain. Any patents or other trademarked products manufactured from ideas contained herein are hereby allowed to the developer of said product. It is simply requested that a donation be given to the ToG, so that continued research into the ToE, and any future developments may be self funded.